Hannes Nel


  • Oops, one set “is”. Can’t find an edit facility.

  • Hello Sylvia, Redress, in my opinion, is not only a good example of what can result from post-colonial research but also a good example of the difference between colonialism and post-colonialism. Colonialism as a paradigmatic approach to research often, though not always, was used by colonialist researchers. Consequently, it often was an effort to…[Read more]

  • Written by Dr. Hannes Nel, MBL; D. Com; D. Phil

    Post-colonialism is the study of the impact of colonial rule on colonised people and how it impacted on their culture, economy, religion, government, etc. The key […]

    • Thank you Hannes.
      Interesting – our Constitution speaks of redress – which I think is generally seen as redress for apartheid exclusion – but in addition to the legacy of apartheid, there is also an intertwining of colonialism influences. Something that is evident in a number of skills development related issues.

      • Hello Sylvia, Redress, in my opinion, is not only a good example of what can result from post-colonial research but also a good example of the difference between colonialism and post-colonialism. Colonialism as a paradigmatic approach to research often, though not always, was used by colonialist researchers. Consequently, it often was an effort to justify colonialism. Such researchers also tended to adopt a rather superior attitude towards the indigenous people of the colonies, and they followed an etic approach. Post-colonialism, as you rightly wrote, is often aimed at redress of historical injustices, written by citizens of countries that used to be colonies (sometimes also “outsiders” with integrity and a healthy sense of justice and fairness). Researches making use of post-colonialism mostly follow an emic approach.

  • Written by Dr. Hannes Nel, MBL; D. Com; D. Phil

    According to the positivist paradigm, true knowledge is based on experience of the senses and can be obtained by observation, and by conducting experiments, […]

  • Ah, Sylvia, You should have stayed with Grounded Theory. As you know, all academic research needs to be objective, but no research method is more open-minded than grounded theory. In grounded theory the researcher must allow the data that she or he collects to dictate the direction in which the research develops. The researcher depends and trusts…[Read more]

  • Hello Sylvia, In my book on qualitative research I differentiate between Ethnomethodology and Ethnography.
    Ethnomethodology is a paradigm that deals with social issues, specifically things that we can observe in everyday life.
    Ethnography, in my opinion, is a research method. One can argue that ethnomethodology is the philosophy behind ethnic…[Read more]

  • Written by Dr. Hannes Nel, MBL; D. Com; D. Phil

     Phenomenology is a philosophy that believes that individual behaviour is the product of a person’s experience through direct interaction with phenomena. An ob […]

    • Good day Hannes,
      Thank you so much for this new article. Reading through it, I found myself wondering about the differences and overlap of Phenomenology with Ethnographic approaches.
      Also what is the status of the researcher – e.g. not value-free?

      • Hello Sylvia, In my book on qualitative research I differentiate between Ethnomethodology and Ethnography.
        Ethnomethodology is a paradigm that deals with social issues, specifically things that we can observe in everyday life.
        Ethnography, in my opinion, is a research method. One can argue that ethnomethodology is the philosophy behind ethnic (actually “social” would be more accurate) research while ethnography is the method by which such research is conducted.
        I would appreciate your opinion on this. Also, could you please explain what you mean by the researcher being not “value-free”?
        Kind regards, Hannes

        • Thanks Hannes,
          Yes, I agree with your explanation – I should have compared with Ethnomethodology.
          On “value free”, I am referring to the position of the researcher – whether the researcher is considered entirely independent, such as in a positivist paradigm or a recognition of the subjective nature of the researcher contribution. The values and position of the researcher influence the identification of evidence and the interpretation of that evidence. I recall this being also being a debate between Weber and Marx.

          • Ah, Sylvia, You should have stayed with Grounded Theory. As you know, all academic research needs to be objective, but no research method is more open-minded than grounded theory. In grounded theory the researcher must allow the data that she or he collects to dictate the direction in which the research develops. The researcher depends and trusts the data and his or her findings and conclusions from the data entirely. I used it and it is a wonderful experience. The positivist paradigm supports grounded theory very well, even though it is mostly used with quantitative research. I think my last article explains this in enough detail? In closing, I find the angle at which you approach research methodology interesting and rather challenging. Love it.

            • Thanks Hannes – Yes I have Cathy Charmaz on my bookshelf – maybe for future.
              But I am currently persuaded that for the South African context we can benefit from the relevance of cultural-historical activity theory CHAT.
              Look forward to your next post. Thanks

  • Written by Dr. Hannes Nel, MBL; D. Com; D. Phil

    Neoliberalism is a description of the dominant mode of conducting political and economic organisation in a global world, which obviously would also be the field […]

  • Written by Dr. Hannes Nel, MBL; D. Com; D. Phil

     Modernism evolved over a period of approximately 400 years from a philosophy based on the interpretation of the mythical to a paradigm based on logic. Generally […]

  • Hello Sylvia, Thank you for being interested in my postings. The difference between an emic and etic approach lies in the way in which the researcher approaches his or her target group for the research. An emic approach would be if the researcher investigates her or his target group “from the inside”. This would mean that the researcher is inc…[Read more]

  • Written by Dr Hannes Nel, MBL; D. Com; D. Phil

    In our current day and age neoliberalism largely rendered liberalism obsolete. Even so, liberalism is still a relevant paradigm.

    Liberalism advocates tolerance, […]

    • Thank you Hannes. I read with interest, and I have a question and a request please.
      I see your comment about constructivism as variant of liberalism. I had not seen that. Is that a generally accepted view?
      Then a request please. Your last paragraph I think, leads into a discussion of a post-colonial epistemology. Could you engage with that please?

    • Thank you so much for your explanation. That becomes much clearer for me.
      I am interested in your distinction of academics representing an etic or emic approach in post-colonial studies.
      So following that distinction & taking it further – would it be correct in studying the apartheid years to be able to distinguish older students with a emic approach and young students with an etic approach?

      • Hello Sylvia, Thank you for being interested in my postings. The difference between an emic and etic approach lies in the way in which the researcher approaches his or her target group for the research. An emic approach would be if the researcher investigates her or his target group “from the inside”. This would mean that the researcher is included in the target for the research. An etic approach would be if the researcher is not included in the research target and do the research “from the outside”.
        If I were to do research on, say, the eating habits of people in Australia, I would need to follow an etic approach because I do not live in Australia. I would conduct the research “from the outside” and I would write a report on “them”. If I were to do the same research on people living in South Africa, it can include me because I live in South Africa, and I would then write a report on “us”. That would be an emic approach.

  • Written by Dr. Hannes Nel, MBL; D. Com; D. Phil

    Often also called ‘anti-positivism’ or ‘naturalistic inquiry’, interpretivism is a softer and more subjective way than hermeneutics in which to interpret data. W […]

  • Written by Dr. Hannes Nel

    I came across this interesting question in an article written by Samuel BA Isaacs, previous CEO of SAQA, and published in the SAQA Bulletin Volume 12, Number 2 of February 2012. The […]

  • Written by Dr Hannes Nel, MBL; D. Com; D. Phil  

     Hermeneutics deals with interpretation. Originally, hermeneutics referred to the study of the interpretation of written biblical text, but now it includes the i […]

  • Thank you, Sylvia, I noticed your and Lynel’s replies this morning already, but it was a busy day, so I did not read her comprehensive one in full yet. I will reply to her as well. Our challenges are not with the policies and procedures, or even legislation, but rather with what is discussed and said at informal forums and the workplace and how…[Read more]

  • Written by Dr Hannes Nel, MBL; D. Com; D. Phil

    Biological organisms have systems that perform various specialist and survival functions; similarly, social institutions “function” in a systematic and coh […]

  • Thank you once again, Sylvia. You are a remarkably able and professional person.

  • Sjee, Lynel, you really can move. Thank you for the voluminous reply which I have not read in full yet. I will probably respond again tomorrow if necessary. I appreciate your great effort to clarify things. Anyway, I don’t think we (us, not you) should complain too much – it serves no purpose.

  • Written by Dr. Hannes Nel, MBL; D. Com; D. Phil

     

    Feminism is grounded in feminist values and beliefs. Philosophically speaking feminism is the movement for the political, social, and educational equality […]

  • How many private learning institutions closed their doors since the beginning of the year?

    When last did you try to communicate with a quality assurance body? Did they reply to your written enquiries and did […]

    • Dear Hannes,
      Thank you for your post. There are a number of questions here – so I plan to work through them one at a time – by verifying the information I give with documents or verbal confirmation.

      First response – on the NQF level qualifications and quality councils.
      CHE has responsibility for the tertiary qualifications NQF level 5 – 10. QCTO has responsibility for the occupational qualifications 1 – 8.

      Second, the policy decision has been taken to withdraw the delegated mandate from the old ETQAs, that is the QAP-AQP. So as was originally envisaged the responsibility will be returning to the QCTO. So I would suggest that if a SETA official informs you differently, to either of these points – please advise us exactly who that is.

      I will follow up with further responses.

      • Thank you once again, Sylvia. You are a remarkably able and professional person.

        • Thank you Hannes,
          I am very much a “where’s the evidence” person – and with SA skills development – there’s lots of statutory and policy evidence – but a serious lack of effective implementation. (And it seems an overload of rumours.)
          So I’m looking forward to having Minister Nzimande back – and the President clearly has education and skills on his priority list, and mentioned private sector working with government.

    • Thank you Lynel for such a comprehensive response.

      One challenge that may have influenced private providers is the company compliance requirement for registration with DHET – that may have presented a challenge. I am not sure if anyone has information on that.

      In response to the last question on APPETD, I have been advised that the CEO Cynthia Reynders was not in that position for a period – a number of months as I understand – but is in fact now back in that position. So you can certainly make contact with her again.

      Then on APPETD and the QCTO, I understand that in addition to the APPETD board, there is a specific committee that is responsible for the APPETD QCTO liaison, which meets regularly to raise issues of private providers.

      Of course APPETD members are their priority, but they will include issues raised by non-members – as they are probably in the interests of everyone to raise and resolve.

      • You are most welcome Sylvia. It is no easy change, nor it is easy to follow all the different gazettes and amendments and additional requirements from various authorities. A lot of providers are frustrated. The DHET registration is a challenge with many questions and little support – it continuous being a challenge. Providers must not give in or give up.

      • Thank you, Sylvia, I noticed your and Lynel’s replies this morning already, but it was a busy day, so I did not read her comprehensive one in full yet. I will reply to her as well. Our challenges are not with the policies and procedures, or even legislation, but rather with what is discussed and said at informal forums and the workplace and how they provide (or don’t provide) support to their constituent providers.

    • Dear Hannes, thank you for your response.

      When I delay in responding it is an indication that I am seeking information and I will come back to you.

    • Good morning Hannes,
      Lynel has given a comprehensive response to your questions, which I believe are all very relevant to focus attention on where we are with skills development – compared to where we wanted to be – and therefore what should be the way forward.

      One point you make is about the lack of answers to questions. I understand the frustration, that I also experience with the difficulty in contacting administrators, so I am not defending that administrative inefficiency, but reluctance to answer questions may well be influenced by the pre-election climate – who would win, how well, and then waiting for the new Ministerial appointments.

    • Interesting questions, I would like to respond per question!

      How many private learning institutions closed their doors since the beginning of the year?

      This information could be obtained per SETA, or perhaps the CIPC. The reason for training providers closing, could be from struggling to survive, to financial problems, poor quality of training and/or perhaps getting to close to being caught with activities which is illegal (the list goes on).

      When last did you try to communicate with a quality assurance body? Did they reply to your written enquiries and did they answer your questions?

      Majority of Providers will advise that little communication is received, and some providers are lucky to have received communication within a number of days. Each SETA response time is different than the other.

      Where do the TVET Colleges fit into the adult learning system? Do they resort under SETAs or their accrediting body, which is supposed to be Umalusi?

      There are fifty registered and accredited public TVET Colleges in South Africa which operate on more than 264 campuses spread across the rural and urban areas of the country. Public TVET Colleges are established and operated under the authority of the Continuing Education and Training Act 16 of 2006 and resort under the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET). Public TVET Colleges are subsidised by the state. Each region has a DHET regional office that provides specialised professional support to the public TVET Colleges in provinces. Various Public TVET Colleges are also accredited under SETAs as well as QCTO (perhaps even CHE too).

      What about the NQF? Will it still be possible to design, develop, accredit and register occupational qualifications on NQF levels 5 and higher or will all such qualifications be transferred to the CHE?

      There are different NQF levels which fall under a specific Quality Council. The registered SAQA Qualifications for occupational qualifications, will clearly indicate under which Quality Council the qualification is falling. If the Quality Council is QCTO, then you will apply to the QCTO, and if the qualification falls under the CHE, you will apply to the CHE. Let’s look at an example of a qualification on NQF Level 6 – this qualification falls under the Occupational Qualifications Sub-Framework, so in other words under the QCTO.

      National Certificate: Occupationally Directed Education, Training and Development Practices
      SAQA QUAL ID 50331
      SAQA Title: NC: Occupationally Directed Education, Training and Development Practices
      ORIGINATOR
      SGB Occupationally-directed ETD Practitioners
      PRIMARY OR DELEGATED QUALITY ASSURANCE FUNCTIONARY NQF SUB-FRAMEWORK
      ETDP SETA – Education, Training and Development Practices Sector Education and Training Authority OQSF – Occupational Qualifications Sub-framework
      QUALIFICATION TYPE FIELD SUBFIELD
      National Higher Certificate Field 05 – Education, Training and Development Adult Learning
      ABET BAND MINIMUM CREDITS PRE-2009 NQF LEVEL NQF LEVEL QUAL CLASS
      Undefined 145 Level 6 Level TBA: Pre-2009 was L6 Regular-Unit Stds Based
      REGISTRATION STATUS SAQA DECISION NUMBER REGISTRATION START DATE REGISTRATION END DATE
      Reregistered SAQA 06120/18 2018-07-01 2023-06-30
      LAST DATE FOR ENROLMENT LAST DATE FOR ACHIEVEMENT
      2024-06-30 2027-06-30

      What about the existing qualifications on NQF Levels 5 and higher? What will happen to the accreditation of private providers offering such qualifications?

      Providers that are currently accredited by a SETA to offer NQF Level 5 or perhaps 6, continue as per the SAQA registration status, and need to focus on the last date of enrolment as well as the last date of Achievement. In the meantime, the provider needs check the SAQA qualification status, should it be registered as an occupational qualification, the new qualification number will be recorded. There will be time to complete the legacy qualification for the learners that are already in the process. But new enrolments will need to be on the occupational qualification (thus the provider need to apply for accreditation for the occupational qualification with the QCTO). So the provider might be running the legacy qualification and start a new group on the occupational qualification parallel.

      What about the learners who enrolled for such qualifications, most of whom work for state departments?

      Whether the learner is employed by the state or by a private company/employer, the learner will be given the opportunity to complete their studies with the legacy qualification, as no learner will be disadvantaged. As long as the provider ensures that the learner is enrolled before the SAQA recorded: last date of enrolment. The learner may continue to finish the legacy qualification before the SAQA recorded: last date of achievement.

      What about the legacy qualifications, many of which have been integrated by state departments and some private industries into their appointment and promotion policies?

      Once you have achieved a legacy qualification, it cannot be taken away from the learner. The old legacy qualifications will be listed on the SAQA occupational qualification, as replacement qualifications.

      Will the facilitators, assessors, moderators, academic researchers, managers, etc. working for private learning providers offering occupational qualifications on NQF level 5 and higher lose their jobs?

      Facilitators, Assessors, Moderators, Researches, Managers working for private providers will not lose their employment merely because the provider moved over from legacy qualifications to occupational qualifications. Experience of these individuals are key, to ensure quality education within our sector. This is a difficult questions, as none of know the effect of the economy and whether the business will survive, when corporate employers start downsizing. We know that training budgets are the first to go out of the door, so our industry of private providers, remain a cut-throat business.

      What happened to the vision of establishing an integrated NQF where the portability of qualifications, standards and credits; the mobility of students and learners and the transferability of knowledge and skills between occupational and higher learning would be possible?

      We are already moving into the integrated NQF, and running a parallel system of both legacy qualifications as well as the occupational qualifications. Various occupational qualifications now indicate the shorter programmes within the qualification (we know it as skills programmes or short programmes). This is now being called: part-qualifications. There is still a lot of work to be done, to get our education system running smooth. How long will this take, I don’t know. Perhaps the next 10 years or more. Changing a system and continuously trying to improve it, is a challenge for sure. I believe that SAQA is also trying their best to close gaps by working with all Quality Councils as well as the DHET.

      These are questions that we have been asking for months already. Nobody is willing to offer concrete answers – perhaps nobody knows. Rumours abound.
      Some questions, are easier to answer than others. We are in a time, with many changes, where unfortunately implementation is done, before proper consultation as well as proper systems are in place before implementing anything. Luckily for majority of providers, we are used to getting some information, and try to follow each “change” and regulation as and when they are presented/published. This is the difference between providers that attempt to stay current (this is not an easy task) and providers that fall behind, because once they are accredited, they assume that the work is done, which clearly is not the truth. This is when the real work starts.

      There are many issues that can lead to the end of a private learning institution/training provider/ skills development provider/private college.

      Quality and compliance is costly. If you move with change, and you continue with quality learning programmes (approved), and stay current with all the changes, the provider will be fine. It is continuous hard work, and the administrative side doesn’t get any easier or less. We need to continue with our focus of educating others with the best of our abilities, follow our passion to make a difference in other’s lives, so that they can become more employable and perhaps the next successful entrepreneur.

      We need answers now, which brings me to my last question – where is the APPETD?

      I believe that APPETD is here, for members and non-members. Perhaps not always on skills universe. I would recommend that you communicate and engage with them, perhaps they have more answers, which providers are looking for.

      I cannot speak for or on behalf of professional bodies, but I am sure that those out there, will try to assist where they can!

      • Sjee, Lynel, you really can move. Thank you for the voluminous reply which I have not read in full yet. I will probably respond again tomorrow if necessary. I appreciate your great effort to clarify things. Anyway, I don’t think we (us, not you) should complain too much – it serves no purpose.

        • Hi Dr Nel, no problem at all. I trust that you will enjoy my response, I had some thinking to do! I will still appreciate your comments (no matter negative or positive). Yes, you are right, it doesn’t help complaining. We can only try to assist one another where we can (when we can). Enjoy the reading!!

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